Typically, “fat burning” supplement strategies fall into the following categories:
The above mentioned strategies all work in particular people at particular times. The challenge is getting the right combination of diet plus exercise plus supplementation to create a system that works for you.
“Fat burning” is another word for fatty acid oxidation. Burn fat to give you energy.
There are 2 essential ingredients and 1 piece of machinery required for fat burning.
You need this pumped into the engine of our cells (mitochondria) to convert it into energy.
The ATP-CP energy pathway (sometimes called the phosphate system) supplies about 10 seconds worth of energy and is used for short bursts of exercise such as a 100-metre sprint. This pathway doesn’t require any oxygen to create ATP. It first uses up any ATP stored in the muscle (about 2-3 seconds worth) and then it uses creatine phosphate (CP) to resynthesize ATP until the CP runs out (another 6-8 seconds). After the ATP and CP are used the body will move on to either aerobic or anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis) to continue to create ATP to fuel exercise.
During exercise an athlete will move through these metabolic pathways. As exercise begins, ATP is produced via anaerobic metabolism. With an increase in breathing and heart rate, there is more oxygen available and aerobic metabolism begins and continues until the lactate threshold is reached.
If this level is surpassed, the body cannot deliver oxygen quickly enough to generate ATP and anaerobic metabolism kicks in again. Since this system is short-lived and lactic acid levels rise, the intensity cannot be sustained and the athlete will need to decrease intensity to remove lactic acid build-up.
What is lactate threshold?
Your lactate threshold is the point during exercise when your blood lactate levels exceed resting levels as your lactate production exceeds your lactate clearance and your blood lactate levels begin to rise dramatically. This is an indication that you have pushed past the point of exercise intensity where you have enough oxygen for aerobic metabolism (oxidation of fatty acids, carbs or protein).
Peppermint oil is a central nervous system stimulant and can induce lipolysis to liberate FFA during exercise by a very novel mechanism via activation of TRPM8 thermoregulatory receptors; even when not cold menthol produces an increase in oxygen consumption and enhanced non-shivering thermogenesis and lipolysis. Basically menthol can trick your nerves into thinking you are cold and your body responds by increasing heat production from fat. Peppermint oil enhances lipolysis, thermogenesis and fatty acid oxidation.
Grapefruit peel oil contains a synergistic cocktail of chemicals that work together to be very potent lipolytic agents to liberate the extra FFA needed during exercise to allow fat oxidation to be significantly increased during exercise. Limonene is the main driving force but the synergistic effect of having gamma-terpinene and p-cymene naturally in the same oil amplifies the limonene effects.
Grapefruit oil increases lipolysis and heat production (thermogenic energy consumption), and reduces appetite by exciting the sympathetic nerves of the autonomic nervous system.
Grapefruit essential oil enhances lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation by modulating the “PPAR” group of receptors to improve fatty acid release, improve insulin sensitivity and prevent against spikes in insulin and blood glucose that switch off fat burning. Furthermore, grapefruit oil increases the activity of genes in fat cells which are closely related to fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.
CLA interacts synergistically with the grapefruit oil to activate PPAR increasing the gene transcription related to lipolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity, and collectively this enhances the release of free fatty acids and subsequent mitochondrial activation to burn the fatty acids.
Activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The AMPK is a sensor of cellular energy charge and a ‘metabolic master switch’. When activated by ATP depletion, it switches off ATP-consuming processes, while switching on catabolic pathways that generate ATP. Rising AMP and falling ATP, brought about by various types of cellular stress (including exercise in skeletal muscle), stimulate the system in an ultrasensitive manner. Activation of AMPK by cellular stress or exercise switches on fatty acid oxidation while switching off fatty acid synthesis. AMPK activation basically induces a cascade of events that switch on the burning processes to generate new ATP from burning whatever fuel is available and switches off any ATP utilising processes like biosynthesis and anaerobic metabolism making AMPK activation the master switch that activate the aerobic fatty acid oxidation.
AMP-K activation is the master switch to decrease lipogenesis, increases fatty acid oxidation, and increases lipolysis in adipocytes
Definition of lipogenesis: the formation of fat; specifically: the formation of fatty acids from acetyl coenzyme A in the living body and especially in adipose tissue and the liver.